By: Anthony Drake
The application of the Employment Relations Act 2000 and different tax treatment are key reasons it is important to correctly establish whether a person is an employee or an independent contractor.  The following distinctions arise:
  1. Employers are required to deduct PAYE taxes for employees, but not independent contractors. Independent contractors must register for GST if their income exceeds $60,000 and must pay accident insurance levies.  In the case of a work injury, an employee will receive 80% of earnings lost in the first week from their employer, whereas ACC will pay an independent contractor for the second and subsequent weeks.
  2. Independent contractors are not entitled to holiday pay, sick leave, benefits of the Minimum Wage Act and parental leave legislation.
  3. Personal grievance procedures may only be used by employees who are subject to a contract of service.  Employees can seek remedies through the Employment Relations Authority or Employment Court.  Disputes between a contractor and hirer must be resolved as purely contractual disputes through the Civil Courts.
  4. Employment law creates a relationship of trust and confidence between the employer and employee.  Implied in all employment agreements are duties of personal service, obedience, fidelity, confidence, trust and fairness.  Generally, these are absent from the dealings between a contractor and hirer.
  5. As a general rule an employer is vicariously liable for the acts of an employee, but may not be for the acts of an independent contractor.
Employment status depends on whether a worker’s employment agreement is a contract of service or a contract for service.  Under the Employment Relations Act 2000 a written employment agreement is not conclusive in answering this question, although it can show the intention of the parties.  If challenged, the Employment Relations Authority will look at the real nature of the relationship and apply a number of tests.  These include the control, integration, independence, intention and economic reality tests:
 As discussed above, there are numerous indicators which will suggest whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor.  To understand the difference between an employee and independent contractor requires an assessment of the whole of the relationship and its context.  In a leading case (Three Foot Six Ltd v Bryson [2004] CA246/03) the Court of Appeal considered industry practice was an external reality that was relevant to determining the real nature of the relationship.  What employers really need to be aware of is that the courts will look beyond the labels.

Anthony Drake, Partner

Telephone: +64 9 300 2615 / +64 21 790 140

Download this article in PDF format
Share this page on social media:

Enter security code:
 Security code


Wynn Williams Client Toolkit

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with stylesheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. The latest version of Firefox, Safari or Google Chrome will work best if you're after a new browser.